Training for My First Ultra Marathon – 50 kilometers

I set a goal at the beginning of the month that was a bit optimistic, maybe doable, but I’ve already revised the goal and added another month to it so I don’t leap forward in my usual gung-ho style and hurt myself. I’d like to really ramp up my running over the next year and don’t need any major injuries.

I want to run my first Ultra-Marathon of 50 KM by the end of October.

Some Background

  • I played soccer from 7 years old until 18.
  • I raced (running) competively, bicycled competitively, and ran triathlons and biathlons competitively for a total of maybe 10 years after high school. I’m 48 years old now.
  • Until recently I hadn’t run past 15 miles. The other week I ran 16 miles and it felt great up until that point. Great, meaning I was able to keep going and push through the pain without too much trouble. At the sixteenth mile the soft tissue behind my knees hurt too much to continue.
  • I don’t stretch. I need to stretch a bit because after 15 miles I think my legs were feeling much too tight.
  • I’ve done mostly short trail runs and step climbing sessions of 40 minutes to 2.5 hours over the past 10 years. Running started in earnest about 2 years ago after stopping riding my bike.

So, after listening to Sage Canaday’s video about periodization training I decided to go on a 9 day cycle, like he does. I’ll do a hard workout – quality workout he calls them – and then take 2 easy days, then another hard workout, 2 days, etc. I’ll do 3 difficult days during the 9 day cycle, and 5 days easy, possibly 4 easy depending how difficult my long run is to complete.

Here’s the breakdown for this week:

  • 9/16  – easy 6-7 miles
  • 9/17 – fast run up mountain trail for 700 meters elevation gain and 11.5 kilometers. This is a lactic acid threshold run for 90% of the run. Involves some power-hiking up steep sections.
  • 9/18 – easy 6-7 miles
  • 9/19 – easy 6-7 miles
  • 9/20 – lactate threshold / tempo run with 1 minute rests between 1.25 km laps around the park (flat – no elevation gain).
  • 9/21 – easy 6-7 miles
  • 9/22 – easy 6-7 miles
  • 9/23 – long run of 12-20 miles – depending how I feel.
  • 9/24 – rest, nothing
  • 9/25 – easy 5-6 miles
  • 9/26 – fast run up mountain trail like above.
  • Repeat, adding couple miles during each week to the easy runs to increase overall mileage.

We’ll see how this plan goes. Ideally I’ll remain uninjured and be able to complete my goal in late October of running my first 50 kilometer ultra-marathon. I’ll do this around our local park. It’s flat and will hopefully be a cool day!

Marathon Training – Periodization by Sage Canaday

Notes on Sage’s video…

Periodization is breaking training into blocks of training to make the best use of your time.

The goal is to gain speed, strength and endurance.

The most important?

Getting in a consistent long run. Your long run might be 8 miles, 10 or 12 miles. Depends what you’re ready for. Build up to longer over time.

Build consistency before speed.

During the introductory phase. Build it up with slow easy paced running about 1 to 1.5 minutes per mile under marathon pace. Building up mileage as high as you can without getting injured.

30-40 miles a week is around the minimum recommended.

So, we want to mix different types of training to get into the best shape possible.

Most important – having the endurance to hang on after 18 to 20 miles.

Want a really well-trained lactate threshold.

Sage – 2 easy days between each quality workout. Has 9 day cycles. Does a real long run every 9 days. Takes 2 easy days then to recover. Then do a tempo run. Then 2 easy days. Then a track interval. Then 2 easy. And so on.

Can do some pretty hard long runs up to 3 weeks out before your race.

You develop speed and endurance simultaneously. They help each other out.

By running higher mileage, you can bring out more speed.

By running fast, you can build the strength in your legs to help your slow-twitch fibers handle the endurance component.

Sage’s Video about Periodization:

Apple Watch vs Suunto Ambit3

Apple Watch Melon Color Suunto Ambit3 Sport Blue

Runners will find this review useful if considering a sports watch purchase in the near future. Here I compare the Apple Apple Watch vs. Suunto’s latest, the Ambit3.

I don’t think there is any doubt that the Suunto Ambit2 and Ambit3 are the most popular watches for ultra-runners and many other serious amateur and professional athletes across the globe. I see the watches on the wrists of ultra-runners, explorers, triathletes, and cyclists all over the world. Suunto makes great watches. No doubt.

Enter the new Apple Watch, due for release in early 2015 but revealed yesterday at the latest Apple Event. The Apple Watch is not strictly an athlete’s watch, but it contains many of the functions top-level and amateur athletes appreciate in a watch – HR monitor, accelerometer, caloric expenditure, GPS when paired with iPhone, etc. It is also customizable and the functions will expand with time as Apple developers write amazing applications for it. Over a short time Apple will also refine the watch to meet the needs of more users – hopefully athletes like us.

This post compares the Apple Watch to the latest Suunto Ambit3 in specifications and I give an opinion on which watch might be best for you and me, since I am in the market for a sports watch that can do what these two watches offer. I compare each watch on major issues related to running, trail running, ultra-running. This comparison will not be helpful for cyclists, swimmers, or other sports – just running.

The Ambit3 has these models:

  • Ambit3 Peak Sapphire and Peak (both in black)
  • Ambit3 Sport Sapphire and Sport (black, blue, white)

The difference between the watches is that the Sapphire versions have a Sapphire quartz bezel that is more scratch resistant than the other versions.

The Apple Watch has these models:

  • Apple Watch
  • Apple Watch Sport
  • Apple Watch Edition (solid gold case)

1. Durability. Without having experimented with the Watch, I’m going to say that the Suunto watches are going to last much longer with rugged use than the Apple Watch. The band, the watch frame and face, are all just considerably more rugged than Apple’s Watch, which is as much geared toward fashion as it is the sports functions. Apple’s Watch is so much more than a sports-watch, and this is reflected in its design. If you are rough on watches – don’t even bother with the Apple Watch unless you have deep pockets and don’t mind continually breaking them. The Suunto is of course waterproof, but I cannot say that for the new Apple Watch, as they didn’t mention that at all yesterday.

2. GPS. The Suunto Ambit3 has an accurate GPS and has three ping levels that help extend battery life: 1 sec, 5 sec, 60 sec. You can buy the “Ambit3 Peak” and get the barometric / altimeter sensor that will give you elevation and atmospheric pressure which fuses with map data for elevations to give you a supposedly more accurate reading. The Apple Watch doesn’t have any GPS at all, you’re supposed to pair it with an iPhone for that function. The Apple Watch and the Ambit3’s other than the Peak use GPS to match up with elevation records of maps in a database.

3. Elevation Gain. The Ambit2 was shown to have a very marginal accuracy regarding gain by one Youtuber (Bush Channel Ambit2 Error). He performed a detailed test including calibrating the unit and climbing to different peaks that had their official elevations noted. Sometimes the Ambit2 was off by 50 meters after just having calibrated it. That’s ridiculously poor accuracy. Better accuracy was had by a Garmin GPS device he was comparing it to, which wasn’t a watch, but still. I wouldn’t rely on the Ambit2 elevation gain or maximum readings. I’d love to see a new test of the Ambit3 in this regard. Hopefully they’ve solved the problem because without accurate elevation readings, a run up and down the mountain will be off considerably by hundreds of meters over the hours. You’d be better off to use the maps online. The Apple Watch has an altimeter, but it has yet to be tested for accuracy.

4. Readability and Customization. I ran for years with a crummy display on my Timex Triathlon watch. If I’m not in direct sun, I have a hard time reading the display fast enough. I want to see it instantly, whatever the ambient lighting conditions, not spend seconds trying to see what lap I’m on and what my time is. Both the Apple Watch and the Suunto Ambit3 series watches have excellent readability, though in bright sunshine the Suunto Ambit3 is going to reign supreme due to the superior contrasty screen.

5. Heart Rate Monitors. Both the Apple Watch and the Suunto Ambit3 use bluetooth connectivity to pair the units with heart rate monitors (HRM). I am assuming the Apple Watch does because again, it wasn’t mentioned in the “reveal” which really, revealed little. Though it isn’t known which HRM is more accurate, they are probably going to both be acceptable. One highlight of the Apple Watch is that it has a built-in HRM that takes a reading while it is on the wrist – chest strap is unnecessary. Now, you’re going to want to use a chest strap for your runs because I think the wrist monitor is going to be a bit flaky and not nearly as accurate, but let’s see how it plays out with future iterations.

6. Battery Life. I don’t think battery life even matters until one watch has so much capacity that I don’t even think about it any more. As it is – 1 to 3 days of battery life using the GPS function means I have to think about it. That’s not ideal. I don’t want to plan for a run and think for a minute about whether or not I’ll be able to use the watch or not because it isn’t fully charged. That’s the sad state of battery technology right now, but it will improve over the next few years. I consider the battery life on both these watches to be marginal and unacceptable, but then what choice do I have? Other than using the GPS constantly, both the Apple Watch and Suunto Ambit3 give decent battery life for simple functions. Funny enough, the 9/9/2014 Apple Event which introduced the Apple Watch – didn’t mention battery life at all.

Just as important as battery life is the time it takes to charge the watches. I haven’t seen any good data on that yet. It would be significant if either one could charge substantially faster than the other, or, offered easy to exchange batteries for extended (superhuman) athletic efforts over the course of days or weeks. The Samsung Galaxy Note 4 boasts this new technology that allows it to charge to 50% in just half-an-hour. An ultra-runners watch with that would be nice!

7. Apps. The Apple Watch will have many more amazing applications developed for it than the Suunto just because the apps can not only collect data, but they can run on the watch itself in graphical form. The difference between the displays of the Apple Watch and Suunto Ambit3 series is night and day. Again, no mention of resolution on the upcoming Apple Watch. There is no comparison as far as the potential for cool applications.

The other functions are generally the same, as far as my needs go. Some of you will want to have a detailed look at hardcore reviews of the Ambit3, like the one by DC Rainmaker (Suunto Ambit3 review). There will undoubtedly be thousands of reviews of the new Apple Watch coming out at the turn of the year. If you want to compare things like which watch will allow you to run against a virtual competitor, or help you attempt to predict the weather based on atmospheric conditions, etc. you can check out those reviews. As new apps are released functionality of both units will change, but the watch by Apple will have (by far) the more advanced and more useful apps.

Apple would probably do well to come up with a very rugged device, and quickly. Their sport model looks the same as their basic model and probably isn’t reinforced at all – it just has a different band. They’ve never done so, with all their products, but it’s an area that, at least in the athletic arena, would help them crank sales considerably. Imagine an Apple Watch functionality and nice screen paired with the rugged durability of the Suunto watches? Makes me sweat just thinking about it. I’d buy a watch like that for $600. Maybe considerably more.

My Ultimate List of Sports Watch Functions:

  • always on GPS, altimeter, accelerometer, screen
  • monitors blood glucose, electrolyte levels, vitamin levels
  • alerts me to cancer or some other major issue
  • monitors white blood cell levels
  • no HRM chest strap needed
  • 1080p video – at least 720p
  • takes a mobile SIM card
  • one month battery
  • waterproof

A watch like this, I would spend $1,000 to own.

Would you buy the ULTIMATE WATCH for $1,000 USD?

What features would you need for that price?

My First 15+ Mile Run Since I Was 17 Years Old

As I get started on my goal to begin running ultra-races on the trails I’ve begun pushing into new territory. Yesterday I did a long run – 15.5 miles. It might be the first time I’ve ever run that far, but I seem to recall a run around 15 miles when I was in 11th Grade in High School thirty-one years ago. Memory is a bit foggy!

Yesterday I was going to run for two hours and see what happened. I haven’t run on the flat for that amount of time that I can remember, but I sometimes do a double lap run up the mountain and it takes 160 minutes, well over two hours. That is a steep incline, and really, it’s only difficult going up, the downhill is a nice relaxing ‘flow’ experience, more than being a physical effort.

I had one Gatorade for the first three laps. Then for the fifth and subsequent laps I carried 2 water bottles.

One lap is 1.25 kilometers. It’s completely flat, just two little bumps not even a meter high in elevation. There is a very slight grade up and down which also probably don’t register as more than a meter elevation change. It’s quite flat.

I ran the first eight laps or so, slowing only to drink some fluid once or twice during each lap. I felt great, no issues in any of the joints or muscles. I kept going… I made 8 laps in the first hour. That’s 10 kilometers, 6.2 miles. Not bad pace, and probably the pace I want to try to keep up for as long as possible when I do attempt the 50 km run/walk at the end of the month. Breathing was at one breath in for 2-steps, one breath out for 2-steps. At some point fat burning kicked in and I was tempted to just go 3-3 on breathing, I felt so good.

When the second hour rolled around I was still feeling good. I had some general joint pain and muscle fatigue in the quads mainly, but I felt like I could push through it. I was at 20 km in two hours. I didn’t think I could hold that pace, but I thought I could probably do the rest of the 50 km in four more hours. So, at lap 16, I figured I’d just keep going until something broke. There was half-a-chance that I could push it the entire distance that day. I hurt, but the hurt was dull and not altogether unknown. I’ve pushed through running when it hurt. Not as much as I have cycling when it hurt, but the pain is familiar. At least it was years ago.

At lap 20 I was 25 km into it, 15.5 miles and soft tissue behind both knees hurt like hell. They hadn’t cramped, but it was like a pre-cramp or something. I knew then I should have been eating and drinking more sugar and salt, but I hadn’t thought making 50 km would be remotely possibly yesterday so I didn’t plan in any way for that.

The 20th lap was pure hell as I struggled with it. I ran for a bit – which eased the pain for 300 meters, but then it came back anyway. I can’t remember ever hurting the tissue behind my knees like that except during very long bike rides (80 miles+).

I went to the car, sat down and shut down the Timex Ironman watch and wondered about the new Apple iWatch coming out and whether it would meet my needs as well as the Suunto Ambit3. Wow. 25 km. The day was perfect. The weather absolutely perfect as far as Thailand goes. There was a very fine drizzle of rain. The clouds blocked the sun. The air was a nice 85F. I didn’t sweat profusely. There were lots of people at the park, some were counting my laps as I went by. None of them were ever right, but it was fun to hear them trying to guess what lap I was on.

There were three dogs at the park I must have run by 12 times. They never barked or chased me.

All in all, an amazing day of exercise. It is now the following morning. I’ve had 10 hours of sleep and my legs are tight. Hamstrings, and calves. I tried to run with a forefoot strike for the entire distance yesterday. I think I feel MUCH less sore than I would have with heel-strikes. Heel strikes kill my knees quick.

I ran in the Nike FREE 7.0 v3 I think they are. Maybe V2. They are very light, very flexible in the forefoot. I had no cramping in my feet during the run or while laying in bed last night.

Such a great experience. Looking forward to my first ultra-distance run in about 3 weeks.

What about you? Have you set your sights on any big goal recently???

Elite Athletes! Apple iWatch or Suunto Ambit3?

Though not a fan of the blue Ambit3, I do love these watches. Whether or not I buy one depends on how much more functionality I can get with the upcoming Apple iWatch. Sept 9 is the Apple event.
Though not a fan of the blue Ambit3, I do love these watches. Whether or not I buy one depends on how much more functionality I can get with the upcoming Apple iWatch. Sept 9 is the Apple event.

This is going to be a major question for athletes, serious athletes across the globe after next week’s Apple event. Supposedly, and in all probability, they will be introducing an Apple iWatch. This watch will be more than just something else that tells time, we all have plenty of time-tellers around the house, on our bodies, on our person. This iWatch is supposed to do cool health-related stuff. There will be thousands of applications written by programmers to take advantage of the operating system in the new iWatch. Those applications will go way beyond what the Suunto Ambit3 is offering.

The new iWatch will in all likelihood be waterproof, or nearly so. if it isn’t, there will probably be a waterproof version made soon, within a year.

You might laugh at the idea that the Apple iWatch could take over for your Suunto Ambit2 or Ambit3, but the sensors in the new watches coming out from many companies, already have temperature, heart rate, barometer, elevation, accelerometer sensors and more. What is the Suunto Ambit3? Just a rugged collection of these sensors.

The iWatch will do everything, or near everything the Suunto watches are capable of. It will probably be priced similarly. It will probably have a speaker and allow you to listen to audio music. Your Suunto doesn’t do that. It will have a calendar. It will link up to your computer or phone via bluetooth and upload your workouts and all data collected, just like your Ambit. It will have replaceable bands.

It will do much more than the Suunto watches, even allowing you to have a conversation on the phone in your backpack somewhere in the house, by just talking into your iWatch which relays it to your phone. I don’t think the watches will be SIM capable – yet.

I love the Suunto Ambit3. Still, I’m holding off on buying one because I may not want it after the new Apple watch is revealed. The Suunto watches allow some apps to be written, but the number of developers that are working on Apple products is overwhelming. There will be much better apps on the new iWatch.

Vibrational alerts? This is something a good percentage of Suunto users have wanted for years. The new Ambit3 still doesn’t have them. Will the iWatch have a vibrator? I don’t think so. There probably won’t be enough room in the small watch housing for one. Who knows though? Apple is known to do things “right” so we’ll see what they come up with.

Will the iWatch be compatible with heart rate monitor straps through bluetooth? Sure. Will the iWatch let you run competition against your friends, or yourself? Probably as soon as some cool apps are written. Suunto only lets you set a level to compete against – quite boring.

Will the iWatch be as durable as the Suunto watches? Likely not even close. I don’t know how many times you’ll be able to sweat on one before it dies, but I wouldn’t think it would have waterproofing and shockproofing at a level that athletes are going to be happy about. At least for a year. Once the new iWatch is released Apple will start getting feedback on what else could be added / changed to make it awesome, unbeatable. The health market is a big category that it wants to own. It has released ecosystems for data collection, and the iWatch will feed into that. It would be great if the watch could tell me that there isn’t enough salt in my sweat during a long run – and that I should eat something salty. It would be great if it did blood pressure. It would be great if it could test sweat for a lot of electrolytes – wouldn’t it?

September 9, 2014 is when the new iWatch is to be released. I’ll be anxiously awaiting it.

What about YOU?

UPDATE – the new Apple Watch has been released and we compared it with the Suunto Ambit3 here.

10,000 Meters Vertical Gain in a Month

View at sunset from the top of a 280 meter hill at a Buddhist temple in Krabi..
View at sunset from the top of a 280 meter hill at a Buddhist temple in Krabi. ©2014 Vern Lovic – Click to enlarge.

Well that went rather well. I finished the month just missing my 10,000 meter climbing goal by 200-300 meters. My left knee just hurt too much to push it for a simple walk up the stairs today. I thought better to relax and let it get better. Yesterday I did a double on the other mountain I run up – it’s a trail to the peak. That was a 9.3 mile (15km) run up to the top, down to the bottom, up to the top, and back down. Total elevation gain – 1,000 meters.  Apparently that was too fast, and too much. Will revisit the 10,000 meter goal again in a couple months.

Some things I learned about climbing 10,000 meters elevation gain in 31 days:

1. Respect the challenge. I’ve been doing 6,000 – 7,000 meters gain most months and it hasn’t been a problem at all. I also do a lot of horizontal running with no vertical gain during those months. I just thought it would be so simple to do 10,000 vertical meters that I could go at 90% maximum effort like I always do. I shouldn’t have, but I did that for the first 20+ days. I felt the effort a lot more than I should have by today! Slow down, enjoy the scenery. The goal was to reach 10,000 m, not to race 10,000 meters!

2. Wear a shirt! There are more things in the tropical rainforest that sting than you can count on fingers and toes. I was stung by black ants, termites, a scorpion, a caterpillar, a bee, and some random stuff that may have been bites or maybe small thorns that tagged my legs as I ran by. Today I was covered with these little black-ant biters that give a wicked little bite for not weighing as much as a grain of sand.

3. 1 Degree C = 30 seconds of time. I can run my trail 3.7 km hill in 36 minutes when I push hard when it’s 24C. When it’s 34C I run it in 41, or I have to kill myself to get under 40 minutes. 10C = about 5 minutes at the very maximum effort end of the scale. This is just for the temperatures between 24C to 34C because I’ve only ever measured at these temperatures, and it’s almost always 34C-36C when I run. I don’t know what I would do in 14C temperatures… probably freeze solid.

4. Just like running on the flat, my body kicks into fat burning mode after about 40 minutes of hard effort on the trail or stairs. It just does it naturally and pretty consistently. I can make it go into fat burning by running for 20 minutes pretty hard then walking for 200-400 meters. That sometimes triggers it. How do I know I’m in fat burning mode? My breathing evens out. My legs have power. My run feels rather effortless once fat-burning switches on.

5. A sharp pain is not reason to stop. OK, there are various levels of sharp pain, and I’m not telling you – run through anything! But, if there’s one thing I’ve learned in my forties now, it’s that a pain is a pain, is a pain. Something hurts on most of my runs. Maybe 80%. When I first start out – it might be my big toe, my ankle, my achilles, my knee, the adductors on my left side. It’s always something. I run through it cautiously for a few minutes, maybe up to fifteen or twenty, and the pain subsides – usually completely.

On the mountain there are a number of non-venomous snakes. I have seen dozens, and none venomous. © 2014 Vern Lovic -
On the mountain there are a number of non-venomous snakes. I have seen dozens, and none venomous. © 2014 Vern Lovic –

6. A 50 km ultra-run up and down a mountain would be the worst thing I could think of to do to my body and expect it to survive. I’ll try it next year.

7. I’ve seen 1 other runner on the technical mountain trail I run up. Not during this month. Not this year. EVER. I’ve been there for 6-7 years now. I’ve seen just one person running it besides me and the one other guy I used to bring there to run it with me. That’s profoundly sad to me. It’s an incredible mountain trail!

8. I thought I loved the trail a bit more than I loved climbing the steps.  No, I love the trail a hundred times more. Being surrounded by flying lizards, snakes, frogs, cicadas, eagles, bugs of every sort, dirt, vines, biting ants, little deer that come up to my shin, waterfall and stream, jaw-dropping views… there’s no comparison.

9. I need to either find a trail, or forge my own up the 1,400 meter mountain peak that is not too far from my home. I think that is going to become my main trail in the near future.

10. Though I’ve tried climbing with friends and alone both, I much prefer alone. I like to see random people on the trail or steps, but I don’t want someone with me to talk to me during my run or stair climb. I just want to be lost in the moment, pushing when I feel the extra energy, when I need a challenge. Taking it very easy when I just want to enjoy monkeys howling around me, or whatever the natural sounds of the forest are that day.

10,000 vertical meters in a month – highly recommended!

Next Challenge – a 50 kilometer Ultra-run / walk around the 1.25km loop at the park on the river. This involves no vert at all.

Ultra-Running, Running Trails in Krabi, Thailand

There are few ultra-runners in Thailand, especially here in Krabi. Around “Thara Park” on the river there might be 30 guys running around a few times per week. Every now and then you’ll see kids running the streets with an adult following them on motorbike. They’re not following them to protect them, or give them water, they’re following to make sure they run the whole time. Not kidding. They take Muay Thai and track training seriously. Poor kids…

Anyway, there are a couple of places to run where you can be somewhat safe from dogs. I’ll list some places below.

1. Thara Park. This is a flat, vertical-free park next to the river and close to Krabi Marina where some small yachts are moored. One big loop around the park on a paved trail is 1.25 kilometers. It has sun during a portion of the running loop and it doesn’t cool off until after 5:30pm. Then it gets dark quickly – around 6:30. You can run until 7pm safely. I wouldn’t go too much after that time. It is possible to run on the grass beside the paved path, and that’s what I do for a good portion of my runs there. I abhor the hard surfaces. Too hard on my knees. There are a couple dogs roaming around here. I’ve only been growled at a couple times in six years, not chased.

2. Ngorn Nak Mountain Trail. This is located out past Ao Nang Beaches, past Noppharat Thara Beach. Into Tub Kaek. Look up “The Tub Kaek” hotel or the Sofitel hotel on the Klong Muang Beach. You’re getting close. This is a 7.4 kilometer round trip up a 500 meter high mountain. It’s a technical trail. If you’re walking fast, it won’t be that difficult. If you intend to run fast – you’ll better be watching every step or you’ll torque an ankle in no time. The canopy is dense, you get little sun as you run, so that’s a positive.

3. Ao Nang Beach Road. This is a couple kilometer road along the beach, along “Big Beach” with a sidewalk. You will occasionally encounter dogs, but most are cool with foreigners because there are always a couple thousand walking around. Some of this run can be in the shade of trees and not that hot.

That’s about it. There are other places I run, but I’ve been chased by dogs and had to fend them off. Not fun!

Keep in mind that daily temperatures in Krabi are 30C+, and many days 35C+. Bring water, lots of water. I always run with a bottle in my hand to make sure I’m drinking enough and regularly.

If you’re looking for someone to run with, zap me email and see if I’m due for a run. I am not fast on the flat, but quick on the climbs and downhills.

There may be another mountain trail climb of some distance (15 km) not too far from Krabi Town. I have to suss it out. I’ll add it here when I do.


Pushing yourself beyond normal athletic performance. Motivation and techniques to help you crank.